"Nature performs not hing vainly, and makes nothing unnecessary" Aristotle Interest in the passage of charged particles through crystals first appeared at the beginning of this century following experiments on x-ray diffraction in crystallattices, which provided the proof of an ordered distribution of atoms in a crystal. Stark  put forward the hypothesis that certain directions in a crystal should be relatively transparent to charged particles. These first ideas on the channeling of charged particles in crystals were forgotten but became topical again in the early 1960s when the channeling effect was rediscovered by computer simulation  and in experiments  that revealed anomalously long ion ranges in crystals. The orientational efÂ fects during the passage of charged particles through crystals have been found for a whole range of processes characterized by small impact parameters for collisions between particles and atoms: nuclear reactions, large-angle scatterÂ ing, energy losses. Lindhard explained the channeling of charged particles in crystals . The results of the numerous investigations into the channeling of low-energy (amounting to several MeV) charged particles in crystals have been summarized in several monographs and reviews [5~8l.
ENERGY EFFICIENCY uses an applied scientific methodology and case studies to demonstrate and support: The need for the U.S. and the world to commit to energy and resource efficiency as the central goal in investing in electric, heat, and cooling infrastructure, the huge economic opportunity for using the inefficiency built into 20th century energy supply systems, especially, electric, to pay for the upgrades, replacements, and new production and distribution systems of the 21st century, the importance of adopting a standard, web-based energy infrastructure investment decision-making and risk management tool that will serve as a communication medium for all stakeholders to evaluate and compare energy infrastructure investment options and manage investment risks, expansions of the U.S. 'smart' grid investment to include evaluation and risk management of energy systems infrastructure investments not just electricity operations, the need to adopt a 'framework' for utilities, energy service companies, and customers to work together to close business deals, communicate and manage risks, and realize profits.
Managing a successful transition of the current energy supply system to less carbon emitting options, ensuring a safe and secure supply during the whole process and in the long term, is one of the largest challenges of our time. Various approaches and first implementations show that it is not only technological issue, but also a matter of societal acceptance and acceptability, considering basic ethic values of the society.
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